What is VoIP ?
VoIP is a cheap mode of communication. Basically it is beneficial for the international callers who spend much, calling through PSTN service. This cheap communication medium is a potential threat to the conventional PSTN service. Within a few years of its origin it has gained its popularity among commuters.
Though it is a cheap communication medium still its quality and real-time factor has hindered it towards its expected monopoly. Using low internet connection of low bandwidth and poor quality of tools are main reason for the non-real-time quality of VoIP.
Though it has placed its strong hold in big business houses and the corporate sectors, but it is yet to catch the common people’s market. It is believed that it will catch the common people’s market soon.
As we know the internet or World Wide Web is a network throughout the globe. Sending the audio-visual data through it would be cheap as compared to any other medium of communication. Few years ago the cost of PSTN phone call was manifold as compared to VoIP call.
In the process of transporting voices through internet protocol, the data get converted into packets. These packets are then transported through World Wide Web. When the speed of the internet is poor or low bandwidth, some of the packets get lost. The receiver couldn’t get all the packets sent by the sender and the quality of the voice becomes low. So, low bandwidth internet connection and poor quality of tools are main reason for the non-real-time of the VoIP.
Though it has placed its strong hold in big business houses and the corporate sectors, but it is yet to catch the common people’s market. It was introduced in the market as an alternative to the costly PSTN phone service. At that time the PSTN’s cost was manifold as compared to VoIP. But after slashing the cost of PSTN to a very low level it seems that solution is not yet a cheap alternate to the costly PSTN service. On the other hand the VoIP’s cost effectiveness was strong point over its low quality. But then what is its value when the cost of both is going to be the same. Still, it is believed to catch the common people’s market soon.
Voice Over IP Phone Systems
To set up a business VoIP system, you need several components. A central device to manage the calls, the way a private branch exchange (PBX) or key system unit (KSU) does in traditional phone systems is one of them.
This can be a dedicated piece of hardware such as an IP PBX, a regular PBX that has been IP-enabled, or a server running specialized software. You will also need phones and a data network. In many cases, you may be able to use your existing digital phones and computer network, although you may need to upgrade some of your network hardware.
The most prominent benefit of an IP PBX is for businesses with multiple locations. With the advantage of this technology, all the offices on a LAN or WAN can get the profits of having a common office phone system. The profits are – extension dialing, seamless call transfers, and other features.
In addition to making it easier to communicate, this sharing of features can enhance collaboration as employees at different locations can truly feel like they are part of the same organization. Plus, if they are on the company network, the phone calls are free – even if your offices are located thousands of miles apart. It is an advantage in saving money expended on calling between two branches of the same office.
Computer networks are designed to handle messy data: packets arrive out of order and some are even lost, but in most cases the data being sent can easily be reconstructed when it is needed. Voice conversations, though, are not as tolerant of these kinds of disturbances. Each packet of sound has to arrive in the correct order because they are being sent in real time – if packets are lost; the conversation sounds distorted, choppy, or falls off all together. This is why Voice Over IP services that rely on the Internet to transmit calls can have uneven phone quality.
The selection of an enterprise Voice over IP solution is a major decision. Voice service is critical to the operation of the business, so no one wants to implement a technology that will compromise call quality or reliability in any way. On the other hand, the cost savings and value-added functionality available with this technology makes it a compelling investment.
LANs & WANs
The VoIP phone system is beneficial for companies having multiple locations branches, telecommuters and remote sales offices. And the locations are connected with a company’s Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN). In that case the companies are suitable for using a Voice Over Internet Protocol system.
You can share the full features of your phone system across all your locations. In addition, even if you have one office in one place and one in different place, VoIP allows calls between them via extension dialing, making it a zero cost call. For businesses with hefty monthly long distance charges due to calls between far off locations, is an attractive reason to upgrade.
VoIP Service Providers
Voice over Internet Protocol isn’t a new concept, but is one that has experienced renewed popularity since 2003. As the popularity of broadband internet connections has increased, the feasibility and interest in making telephone calls over a cable or dsl connection has followed. With several companies such as Vonage, Cablevision’s Optimum Voice, and AT&T; beginning to roll out services, it looks like the concept has matured to a point worth considering.
Service providers operating in more then one country, provider that has billing and support staff located in the country, and offers service subject to the regulations and consumer protection laws of that country.
In a broad way we can categorize providers as follows:
Residential service provider:
Its products primarily aimed at the residential telephone calling market, or home business office. Such companies usually provide or sell a small adaptor box, known as an ATA which hooks between a telephone and a broadband internet connection. Some suppliers lock the ATA they supply, so it is useless with any provider.
Business Service Provider:
Provides service products primarily aimed at the small to medium sized business telephone market. Such companies typically support multi-line telephone systems, small PBX gateways and hosted servers .
B2B Service Provider:
Primarily focusing on Business-To-Business services. This may include origination and termination, or plans aimed at call centers, IVR providers and generic Asterisk users.
International Voice over IP or international VoIP is the high quality voice over IP telephony service which can significantly reduced prices on International call prices and reduced price international access numbers. There are currently a number of destinations where this service is available to/from. The service offers exceptional sound quality and value for money.
There are many service providers have come to market. They provide good quality of VoIP services. Competition among the service providers has brought good quality of services to the people. VoIP information flow
As the information data (sound) travels thorough the internet, so the cost between international and national calls dose not vary much. Basically the international callers depend more on the VoIP rather than the traditional PSTN calls due to its cheap cost.
According to TeleGeography 2004, VoIP providers carried only 150 million minutes of international telephone calls in 1998, less than 0.2% percent of the world’s international traffic. By 2002, cross-border VoIP traffic had grown to just under 19 billion minutes, about 11 percent of the world’s international traffic. “While the FCC debates the future of retail VoIP services, millions of consumers already use VoIP to make international calls every day,” stated PriMetrica analyst Stephan Beckert.
Voice over IP is the easiest way to add additional telephone capabilities to your home or small office. Rather than adding a traditional telephone line, waiting for a technician, and absorbing the added installation and monthly expense, you can take advantage of low-cost VoIP service available over your existing telephone wiring. VoIP services are cropping up all over the world these days. There are two major types of VoIP services:
- One allows you to make calls from your computer to another landline or mobile phone;
- The other lets you make calls from your computer to another computer.
Voice over IP is still an emerging technology and that means it is still changing in many ways. There are many different ways to use VoIP. These include
(i) Computer-to-computer 🙁 PC to PC) Two parties in different locations speak to one another as each sits at a computer. This kind of VoIP connection has existed almost as long as the internet itself. Usually, both sides of the connection are using headphones and a microphone (though you can use a computer’s built-in microphone and external speakers, this usually causes an echo as what comes out of the speakers gets fed right back into the mike and severely disrupts a conversation).
(ii) Computer-to-phone 🙁 PC to phone) This kind of connection is popular among those who make a lot of international calls. There are a number of services that offer overseas calling for just a few pennies per minute. The way it works is that you use your computer (again, with headphones and a mike, VoIP phone or IP adapter (ATA) on a soft phone is preferred) to log into a server, which then uses a VoIP connection to a regular landline phone exchange abroad, which then connects you to the number you want to reach.
(iii) Session Initiation Protocol: (SIP-to-SIP) This method allows telephone calls between two parties while totally bypassing the standard landline telephone system. Each end of a SIP-to-SIP call can use a specialized SIP phone, a regular handset connected to an internet telephony adapter, or a computer running soft phone software.
(iv) Phone-to-phone: This method allows the use of VoIP service to contact any other telephone number, even one on the traditional landline service.
VoIP phone services let you replace your traditional landline phone with one that connects over the Internet. Today, your phone works on Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), a private network that reaches into your home through the standard phone jacks in the wall. With VoIP services, your phone connects to the Internet over your cable or DSL modem. The VoIP offering is a fully managed network-based service that provides all the functions and features of a PBX (private branch exchange) without requiring businesses to buy and operate equipment on their premises.
What we need to use it:
To enjoy this new breed of phone services, VoIP service providers bundle a small device, called a telephony adapter, that plugs into the broadband modem and translates the electrical pulses from your phone into IP packets that travel over the Internet. The way you use your phone is the same, even though the network underneath changes.
As broadband Internet service continues its growth and dial-up continues its shrinkage, all the VoIP vendors have been diligently looking for other avenues to provide Internet-related services.
The money you can save:
VoIP phone service can give you lower cost ‘basic’ service, and can save you even more money on long distance and international calling. If you’re a businessman, you should consider adding one or more VoIP lines to your PBX system. And if you’re looking for home service, maybe VoIP service can completely replace your regular home phone.
Service providers are fueling the drive toward VoIP in enterprises and small and midsize businesses with a flood of new services. Time Warner Telecom introduced a service for large enterprises, and Covad Communications rolled out a pair of options for smaller businesses.
The VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol) service, now available in 13 European countries, costs US$57.50 per phone, per month.
VoIP Books VoIP is an important concept in the networking arena. There are many useful sites providing information on VoIP. But getting information through book is something unique and handy. There are many books available on the VoIP. The list of some of the famous book is mentioned below.
Softswitch: architecture for VoIP(professional telecom)
Practical VoIP Using VOCAL
Practical VoIP Using VOCAL, by David G. Kelly, Cullen Jennings, and Luan Dang — $29.67
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Security
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Security, by PhD, CISM, CISSP, James F. Ransome and PhD, CISM, John Rittinghouse — $49.95
And many more books on the rack.
You can get all these at very affordable cost and its very user friendly.
VoIP books provide complete information about VoIP. This being a new concept people should know it properly. It is such service you only can get advantage if you are using these in proper way. The Internet Telephony TMC Book and educational materials for consumers and businesses are also much helpful in getting information about the VoIP.
That helps them solve problems, lowering cost, and saving time. TMC Universiy provides course development and instruction services that help companies transition their communications systems to reduce telecommunication costs and offer enhanced revenue producing services.
In the age of internet the cell phone or PSTN phone can be connected to the internet for a cheap call. By, this one can save the expense of a heavy phone bill. Basically the large business houses who largely depend upon the PSTN and incur heavy amount they should grab the facilities of connecting the PSTN phones to the internet. The VoIP book is helpful for them to get knowledge how to connect the PSTN phones to internet.
VoIP is the Voice over Internet Protocol where any messages of the phone calls can be carried out by the World Wide Web for a better communication. The messages are carried by the internet but the call can be made form your own PSTN phone or cell. The phone and cells are connected to the internet.
Internet Protocol Telephone – Gateway – IP-network – Gateway – Telephone
So, the gateways are the device that transfer the call data form phone to IP protocol and again receive the data from the IP to the phone or cell. It is just like a gateway that is why it is called VoIP gateways.
VoIP Gateway is a VoIP networking solution that enables voice applications to be handled over the data infrastructure. The VoIP Gateway allows existing small multi-site customers to cost effectively enter into the VoIP environment while providing an opportunity for large multi-site companies with systems to slowly migrate their voice network to IP.
It is a is an external box that interfaces to the system over up to four loop start analog lines, providing a 10/100 BaseT Ethernet connection LAN.
- Private Network Dialing
- Caller ID from originating to destination user
- Interoperability with other Networks systems
- Distributed and supported by Networks
- Browser-based OAM
VoIP architecture is just the configuration of the voice over process over internet according to your business or personal need. It varies with the requirement. Big business houses require high quality and huge equipments. Some others use the VoIP having low configuration.
The quality of voice and practicability of good voice over is largely depends upon the VoIP architecture. Getting real-time voice is largely hampered by the poor architecture. Choosing the low bandwidth internet connection can not meet the demand of real-time-ness.
In the process of voice over through internet the voice data are converted into packets while being transported. And again at the end these get back their original form while the receiver receives it. In these cases if you use the poor quality architecture then the packets get lose on the way. To get all the packets at right place a good VoIP architecture is needed.
It is another issue regarding pinpoint the geographic location of an IP address. In VoIP the call information is provided via an IP address. This is necessary in the case of emergency calls. Although some VoIP providers now do have call routing based from a specified address. And additionally, some have implemented a system known as E911, a more advanced version of the US emergency 911 system, which provides additional location data over VoIP to emergency responders, including street address and the floor inside a building.
One challenge to maintaining call quality is bandwidth: high quality sound requires quite a bit of it. The technology to compress audio and to reconstruct it has been improved to the point where VoIP sound quality over a high-bandwidth connection is as good as or better than that of regular phones. But some networks that are fine for data are not up to the demands of VoIP.
Other limitation of the voice over internet protocol is the inability to use these lines for fax capabilities and a difficulty downloading electronic program that guides to personal video recorder products (such as TiVO). Since VoIP runs through a computer, it does not function independently, meaning that VoIP will not function during a power outage, whereas regular analog telephones do that. Many have made the argument that until VoIP is capable of offering ‘all’ services that PSTN can offer, that they will not be making the switch.
VoIP security issue
The legal and security issue is another drawback of the voice over internet protocol. Being the mater of information technology and cyber world what are the law exit are not sufficient to meet the legal and security issues.
What do we know about Internet Telephony?
Internet telephony (IPT) is carrying of telephone calls over the Internet. It comprises of instrument like traditional telephony devices, multimedia PCs or dedicated terminals. These are all the part of internet telephony.
What is Internet Telephony Good For?
The main benefit of IPT and driver of its evolution is money-saving and easy implementation of innovative services:
Internet Telephony Service Providers (ITSP) can be used with single infrastructure for providing both, Internet access and Internet telephony. It requires just data-oriented switches. That can be deployed for switching data as well as packetized voice. This results in multiplexing data and voice for better bandwidth utilization. As compare to other source of communication devices it is very profitable for the providers and users.
It can be advantageous out of flat Internet rating vs. hierarchical PSTN rating and save money while letting their long-distance calls be routed over Internet.
The IPT user can be benefited by its software-oriented nature. It can be easily extended and integrated with other services and applications, Such as white boarding, electronic calendar. It requires significantly lower investment in terms of time and money than in the traditional PSTN environment.
But one drawback of ITP is its lower quality of voice over IP. But that is only because of higher delay and jitter over transfer of packets (technical terms used to carry voice on the network.) there could be other technical aspects too responsible for its slow transfer of data.
Architecture : What is the basic structure of ITP?
The Internet telephony systems are composed of these elements:
End devices; traditional telephones, audio-equipped personal computers, single use appliances.
Gateways; this is generally used to translate the data received from traditional telephone. It transforms the data to the format accepted by the internet, or transport layer.
Gatekeepers/proxies; the gatekeepers/proxies provide centralized management of calls and functions. It provides many other functions such as call admission control, bandwidth management, address translation, authentication, user location, etc.
Multipoint conference units; it allows multiparty conferences This component can be implemented as hardware or software and may be integrated into single units. They communicate with each other over signaling and voice-transporting protocols.
What holds the future of internet telephony?
Let’s summarize some important factors.
The law of supply and demand works also in the Internet telephony. The prices of the traditional and the Internet telephony will equalize. The most significant obstacles in reaching the equilibrium are the unsatisfactory voice quality and the lack of means of commercial deployments. Researchers are going into deep details to find out the solution to enhance the voice quality. It can be increased with increase in bandwidth. The means of commercial deployments are also designed by both, commercial and academic world. For example, the gateway discovery architecture which enables open market of gateway operators is being proposed by IETF.
It has also become a subject to government regulations. Such efforts are very welcome to traditional Telco’s. Some governments aim to regulate even the PC-based telephony (India, Pakistan), other have indicated they will treat IPT as simple resale (Canada) and others have recognized that action is premature (see the decision by EU and FCC). Look at the VON Coalition’s pages for additional information on the regulations.
Another legal issue is wiretapping. A pretty controversial discussion about the justification and standardization of wiretapping took place on the Raven mailing list of IETF. Eventually, IAB and IESG issued a RFC 2804 which justifies why IETF does not include such functionality in its standards-track.
The Voice over Internet Protocol, sometimes called as ‘packet technology’ has lot, to do, for the high-tech society. VoIP technology has revolutionized the telecommunication industry. It has been taken as a potential threat for the trust-prevailed PSTN based communication system. But lack of real- time is only factor that has hindered the VoIP overturning PSTN. It is now picking up the steam.
Vendors have spent years getting their soft switches and gateways ready for the big-time. Most of the call centers, business process outsourcing companies and business houses depend largely on the VoIP.
When Voice over IP (VoIP) was first introduced commercially in the mid-nineties it was marketed as an inexpensive alternative to traditional telephone service. Quality of Service was not a critical issue because users were willing to tolerate low quality because of the low cost of the service.
Today, large carriers with a long tradition in offering high quality services are considering deployment of VoIP. Also, VoIP has lost its low cost appeal because prices of traditional telephone services have dropped dramatically. Long term success of VoIP will depend on whether VoIP networks can provide high quality services and can be used for offering a wide array of exciting services that cannot be offered by traditional telephone networks.
VoIP applications can generally be used with a simple microphone and computer speakers, but IP telephones or VoIP boxes can also be used, providing an experience identical to normal telephoning. In the past year, the quality and reliability of VoIP technology has improved to the point that vast numbers of users have abandoned their standard telephone contracts entirely, in favor of VoIP.
There are lots of tools that are used for Voice over Internet Protocol. As the VoIP is the transforming of data through the internet, all the tools that are required for running the internet are must for the Voice over Internet Protocol process.
- Audio Test Tools
- Sound cards
- Frame grabbers
- Scan converters
- MPEG capture cards
- Firewire (IEEE 1394) cards
- Feedback control
- Audio I/O
- Distributors for A/V equipment
- Audio mixers
- Telephone Interfaces
- Delay and Effect Units
VoIP With a computer
Voice over Internet Protocol, transfers data through IP packets. It uses special hardware or a PC environment to achieve this purpose.
How does Voice over IP work?
Many years ago it was discovered that sending a signal to a remote destination could have been done digitally. Voice over IP works like that, digitalizing voice in data packets, sending and reconverting them in voice. Digital format can be better controlled: it can be compressed, routed, converted to a new better format. Digital signals are more noise tolerant than the analog one.
Voice over IP uses TCP/IP to go from the initiation across the network to the goal. TCP/IP is an Internet protocol with a leading IP packet to control communication and the lay load.
The advantages using Voice over IP rather PSTN
Using a PSTN line, you typically pay for time you use to the PSTN company. With Voice over IP you can talk all the time with every person you want as long as you want without paying for the time. In addition, you can talk with many people at the same time.
A major advantage of Voice over IP and Internet telephony is that it avoids the tolls charged by ordinary telephone service.
At the same time, you can also exchange data with people you are talking with, sending images, graphs and videos.
Voice over IP to Phone Communication
Voice over IP needs a device as a gateway. The gateway receives packetized voice transmissions from users and then routes them to others, using a carrier system interface, sends them over the public switched telephone network.
Its emerging popularity estimated by 2008 is that VoIP traffic in the EMEA could reach 57 billion minutes. 1,771 billion minutes of voice traffic from the region will also have a VoIP component. These projections are a threat to the existing PSTN service.
A fierce debate was raised at the FCC over the future of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony. At first glance, the ferocity of the debate seems out of proportion to the reality-retail VoIP subscribers account for less than 0.2% of US phone lines. However, recent research on the international long-distance market by TeleGeography, a division of PriMetrica, Inc., suggests that VoIP can transform a century-old business in just a few years.
Question: How does VoIP work?
Answer: This is basically the way VoIP works, sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets rather than in the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network PSTN). It is possible to send a voice signal to a remote destination digitally, as well as via analog. To do that, we have to digitize it with an ADC (analog to digital converter), transmit it, and at the end transform it again in analog format with DAC (digital to analog converter) to use it.
Question: What type of service and equipment are needed for VoIP deployment?
Answer:The following equipment and services are required for VoIP deployment: High-Speed Broadband connection, IP Phones (Softphones will require PC) or Analog Telephone Adapters (ATAs) and VoIP Service Provider (terminate calls).
Question: What are the advantages of VoIP?
Answer:A major advantage of VoIP and Internet telephony is that it avoids the tolls charged by ordinary telephone service. When you are using Public Switched Telephone (PSTN) line, you typically pay for the time you use: The more time you stay on the phone the more you’ll pay. And you generally don’t have the option of talking with more than one person at a time (or you can, but at increased cost). With VoIP, you can talk all the time with any person you want (the requirement is that the other person has an internet connection), with no regard to distance, and you can talk with many people at the same time. Also, at the same time, you can exchange data with people are you talking with, sending images, graphs and videos.
Question: What are the basic requirements to use VOIP services?
Answer:The answer is simple, a quality, high speed Broadband Internet connection with decent upload speed will do the trick including sound card, speaker/microphone and an account with a VoIP provider.
Answer:Can I use dial-up for VoIP or do I need broadband?
Answer:Dial-up can be used for VoIP when necessary or if its the only type of connection available. However, we recommend using broadband since certain VoIP codecs (e.g. G.711) require higher bandwidth.
Question: What’s the minimum internet connection speed I need to use VoIP?
Answer:That really depends on what service you are using. Some companies allow for calls to be made even through a 56 Kbps dial-up modem because they compress the digital packets that carry the voice streams in each direction. Some companies recommend a minimum of 90 Kbps, in both upload and download speeds, because they do not use compression in transmitting voice packets.
A programs that make possible the hardware for passing the voice over through internet protocol are called ‘VoIP’ software.
VoIP Software Availablity
Today there is no of software available. They have more advanced functionality. One should choose the software according to his need. Selecting right software would give right result.
Here is some categories of VoIP Softwares
- GateKeeper Admin Software
- Authentication, Authorization and Account
- Development Tools
- Voice Mail Clients
- Soft Phones
- Call centre monitoring
Internet Protocol (IP) telephony can yield big cost savings to both corporations and consumers . IP telephony promises free, feature-rich telephone services, but quality, reliability and security issues keep some industry experts doubting.
To successfully implement the technology, designers must consider chips, software, code longevity, and vendor support. IP telephony is part of packet voice, which includes voice-over-asynchronous-transmission-mode (ATM) and frame-relay networks.
The general modules of an IP Telephony system are : User Interface, Voice Processing, Telephony Signaling Gateway, Network Interface Protocols, Network Management Agent, and System Services
The User Interface subsystem provides the software components that handle the interface to the user of the IP Telephone.
The Voice Processing software is composed of the following software modules:
A signaling gateway meets the high performance standards for enhanced reliability and multi-service IP network integration. It supports common-channel signaling for seamless integration of PSTN and IP networks, and can be used to control multiple Media Gateways.
VoIP Call Discrimination
Detection of a voice, fax, or data call so that it can be switched the appropriate functional module
Lost packet detection and reconstruction
Voice over Internet Protocol products detect when packets are lost and reconstructs them either by repeating information in subsequent frames or using an upper layer protocol, i.e. TCP
The Packet Protocol module receives signaling information that been interpreted by the Telephony Processing module and converts it from the telephony signaling protocols to the specific packet signaling protocol that is used to set up connections over the data network. It also adds appropriate protocol headers to both voice and signaling packets before transmission
ISUP (Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN))
signaling messages are used to setup, manage and release trunk circuits that carry voice calls between central office switches. ISUP messages also carry caller ID information, such as the calling party’s telephone number and name. ISUP is used for both ISDN and non-ISDN calls between central office switches.
TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Part) signaling messages support telephony services, such as toll-free (free phone), calling card, local number portability and mobile (wireless) roaming and authentication services. Mobile services are enabled by information carried in the Mobile Application Part (MAP) of a TCAP message. TCAP supports non-circuit related information exchange between signaling points using the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) connectionless service.
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